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2019-01-02 | 編輯: | 【

  穹狀沙丘外形渾圓、缺乏落沙坡且獨立存在,是一類外形特殊的沙丘,在地球與火星上分布較普遍,但是,長期以來科研人員對穹狀沙丘的形成發育機制解釋不清。 

  中國科學院新疆生態與地理研究所高鑫副研究員采用元胞自動機模型模擬與實際觀測相結合的方法,首次從動力學機制角度闡明了穹狀沙丘的發育機制:在沙源不豐富的區域,輸沙方向分布標準差增加促使新月形向穹狀沙丘演變。在穩定狀態下,新月形和穹狀沙丘都表現為其移動速度與高度呈反比例的動力學機制。此外,科研人員可以利用局地區域穹狀沙丘的形態與移動速度反演輸沙和風況特征。 

  該研究首次從動力學機制角度闡述了穹狀沙丘的形成與演化過程,相關研究結果以Morphodynamics of barchan and dome dunes under variable wind regimes為題發表在美國地質學會的核心期刊Geology上。

圖1 地球系統中的穹狀沙丘與輸沙標準差的定義。 

A、塔克拉瑪干沙漠中的巨型穹狀沙丘。B、C、D、撒哈拉沙漠中的穹狀沙丘。E、單向和多向風的輸沙標準差定義。F、RDP/DP與輸沙標準差的關系。

 

 

圖2 穹狀沙丘的形態動力學 

A、穹狀沙丘的不對稱性與輸沙標準差的關系(方形和圓形符號分別代表實際觀測和模擬結果)。B、穩定狀態下,穹狀沙丘的移動速度與高度的關系

 
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