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2019-02-22 | 編輯: | 【

  近年來,由于氣候變化和人類活動加劇,我國西北地區降水和氮沉降呈現明顯的增加趨勢,降水和氮沉降增加勢必會對生長在本地區的植物產生影響。短命植物是生長在干旱荒漠地帶的一類生活周期或年生長期很短的特殊植物類群,是我國新疆古爾班通古特沙漠植物類型中獨特的組成部分。從進化角度看,短命植物是一類年輕的植物區系,均為草本種類,對環境具有靈活、多樣的適應策略。因此,長期以來短命植物被認為是研究植物響應環境變化的理想材料。但是在全球環境變化背景下,降水和氮沉降增加將會對短命植物生長產生怎樣的影響?這還未知。 

  基于以上問題,中國科學院新疆生態與地理研究所張道遠研究員團隊的劉會良副研究員在古爾班通古特沙漠腹地建立了長期觀測樣地,每年定期進行模擬增水和增氮實驗,在物種水平上測量短命植物相關生長指標。 

  研究結果表明:1、增水顯著促進了多數短命植物(尖喙牻牛兒苗、毛穗旱麥草、粗柄獨尾草、鳶尾蒜和小山蒜)的生長,增加了植株個體生物量的積累和繁殖輸出,但是對少數物種(小花荊芥)卻有一定的抑制作用。2、在降水量較高的年份,增氮促進了所觀測短命植物物種的生長,但是在降水量相對較低的年份,增氮僅對部分物種的生長具有促進作用,對其它物種反而具有抑制或無明顯影響作用。3、在干旱年份和濕潤年份,水氮互作處理均能顯著促進短命植物生長。研究結果再次印證了前人關于水分和氮素是干旱荒漠生態系統最主要限制性因子的結論,并且增水對少數物種生長具有抑制作用以及在干旱年份增氮對部分物種具有抑制或無明顯影響作用,這很大程度上又豐富了上述結論。 

  相關研究以Life history responses of spring-and autumn-germinated ephemeral plants to increased nitrogen and precipitation in the Gurbantunggut Desert為題發表于Science of the Total Environment文章鏈接Effects of increased precipitation on the life history of spring- and autumn-germinated plants of the cold desert annual Erodium oxyrhynchum (Geraniaceae)為題發表于AoB PLANTS文章鏈接Life history responses of two ephemeral plant species to increased precipitation and nitrogen in the Gurbantunggut Desert為題發表于PeerJ文章鏈接。 

 
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