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2019-06-12 | 編輯: | 【

  綠洲化是干旱半干旱地區在有效供水條件下,由氣候變化和人類活動引起的綠洲演變過程。該過程是一個復雜的擴展、萎縮或二者頻繁交替的過程,也是綠洲生態系統的自我調整與對氣候變化和人類活動響應的再調整過程,具體表現為綠洲化與荒漠化的博弈過程。然而,與荒漠化過程相比,綠洲化的意義還沒有得到普遍認知。隨著全球變暖、人類活動增多、城鎮化提速與社會經濟發展需求的增強,綠洲化已成為干旱區無法回避的過程,它可以在控制沙漠化、生態恢復和土地恢復方面產生積極的環境影響。因此,正確認識綠洲化是解釋荒漠化過程的基礎,也是二者認知中的一個矯正,如何將綠洲化研究提升到與荒漠化同等高度,將二者有機統一起來,仍缺乏相關理論支持與探討。 

  針對這一科學問題,中國科學院新疆生態與地理研究所桂東偉研究員、薛杰博士等,以西北干旱區為例,詳細分析了近幾十年來綠洲化的研究現狀與進展,從認知的角度對荒漠化和綠洲化過程進行了界定,并從荒漠化和綠洲化之間的博弈過程強調了綠洲化在防治沙漠化和控制土地退化方面的意義。 

  研究表明,根據氣候變化與人類活動的相互作用,綠洲化過程具體劃分為六種主要形式:自然綠洲演化過程、工程防護林建設過程、自然地貌向農田轉化過程、城市化過程、人工環境過程以及耦合生態系統過程。這些過程逐漸改善著人居環境和綠洲生態系統的可持續性。該研究提出了新的綠洲化研究科學框架,重點闡明了綠洲化研究的必要性,為豐富綠洲科學與干旱區可持續發展提供了新的研究領域與理論基礎。 

  此項研究得到了中國科學院“西部青年學者”、荒漠與綠洲生態國家重點實驗室開放基金、新疆聯合基金青年人才等項目的資助。相關研究成果以Oasification: an unable evasive process in fighting against desertification for the sustainable development of arid and semiarid regions of China為題發表于Catena期刊上。

    文章鏈接:https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0341816219301171

綠洲化與荒漠化博弈過程(左)和綠洲化研究主要框架(右圖) 

 
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